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武术器械:圈

http://www.chinesecio.com 2010年09月09日 09:05 网络孔子学院

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武术 器械之一。金属制成,形如圆环,周沿有刃,直径约35厘米。一般双手各持一圈,作双兵器使用。古代列为杂兵器。《事物纪源》卷九载:“通典曰,梁有舞轮技。”此所言之轮即圈也。《古今图书集成》第三百卷载:“咸平三年,相国寺僧法山,本洛州人,疆姓,其族百口悉为戎人所掠,至是,愿还俗,隶军伍以效死力,且献铁轮,拔浑重三十三斤,首尾有刃,为马上格战具。”北京西郊石景山模式口翠微山麓明代著名的法海寺壁画中就画有“风火轮”,也属圈类。古代的圈属暗器。形如手镯,除握手呈圆形外,其余均为扁圆形,并在外缘有形如锯齿的薄刺,掷出后使圈旋转,以刺伤人。

 
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A kind of martial arts weapons. They are made of metal and in round shape with blades along the edge. Its diameter is about 35 cm. Generally each hand holds a circle to use it as one of the double weapons. They are listed as a kind of sundry weapons in ancient times. Volume 9 of Sources of Materials records: “The General Standard says there is the skill of playing wheels in the Liang Kingdom”. The wheels mentioned are circles. Volume 300 of Collection of Ancient and Contemporary Books records: “In the third Xianping year, up to 100 relatives of Monk Fa Shan of the Xiangguo Temple, who was from Benluo County and surnamed Jiang, were brought away by bandits and therefore he wanted to return to the secular world and joint the army to offer his all. He presented an iron circle which weighs about 33 jin and had blades in the front and back. It’s weapons for fighting on the horse.” The “pinwheel painted in the fresco in the famous Fahai Temple of the Ming Dynasty at the foot of Cuiwei Mountain in Moshikou of Shijingshan in the west suburb of Beijing is also a circle. In ancient times, circles were hidden weapons and shaped like bracelets. Except their round handle, the other part is flat and round and has thin thorns like saw tooth along the edge. They spun to hurt with thorns after being thrown out.

圈之名目多样,根据其构造分为:乾坤圈,又名金刚圈,圈内径约30厘米,两子钺长约10厘米,两小刺长约5厘米,两大刺长约6厘米;太乙日月乾坤圈,其形制为一个直径约30厘米的铁制圆圈,外缘为利刃,内缘置有一月形利刃,月牙上端圆圈部为把手,用棉布丝绳缠绕,以便握持;日月风火圈,与太乙日月乾坤圈同,唯在握把两侧多两个小圆圈,内径约24厘米,宽约2.5厘米,内钺长约14厘米,两小圆圈外径约6厘米,内径约2厘米;风火轮,系短小双器械,由月牙、圆日和刃尖组成,圆内径约30厘米,共8尖16刃,锋利无比,在圆日底部为握把,用棉布丝绳缠绕,以便握持;日月乾坤圈,圈内径约20厘米,钺长约26厘米,刺长约10厘米,把手与圈呈垂面,高约15厘米。以上各圈均盛于清代,属八卦门独门器械。圈的基本技法有:轮、砸、套、带、格,压等。圈的主要套路有:①少林金刚圈,共16式。主要动作有卧龙盘柱、猛虎出山、童子拜佛等。主要技法有击、撞、挂、砸等。②金刚圈单,共47式。主要动作有左捉膝右架圈、左转上右步马裆右冲圈、上右步右弓步反砸圈等。③阴阳乾坤圈,共21式。主要动作有老和尚撞金钟、左右丹凤朝阳、海底捞月等。④鸳鸯圈,共26式。主要动作有斜门亮圈、枯树盘根、鸳鸯浮水等。主要技法有:推、斩、封、削、缠、拿等。

Circles are diversified and divided according to their structures into Qiankun circles, which are also called Jingang circles and have an inner diameter of about 30 cm, with two sub-tomahawks about 10 cm long, two small thorns about 5 cm long and two big thorns about 6 cm long; Taiyi Riyue Qiankun circles, which are iron circles with a diameter of about 30 cm, a sharp blade on the outer edge, a crescent-like sharp blade on the inner edge and a handle that is wrapped with cotton thread for holding on the circle at the upper end of the crescent; Riyue pinwheels, which are similar to Taiyi Riyue Qiankun circles but have two additional small circles on both sides of the handle, whose inner diameter is about 24 cm, width about 2.5 cm, inner tomahawk about 14 cm long; Fenghuo circles, which are short and small weapons and composed of a crescent, a round and a blade tip, with a round inner diameter at about 30 cm and 8 tips and 16 blades that are extremely sharp as well as a handle that is wrapped in cotton thread for holding at the bottom of the round; Riyue Qiankun circles, whose inner diameter is about 20 cm, tomahawk about 26 cm long and thorns about 10 long, with the handle vertical to the circles and about 15 cm high. All the above circles prevailed in the Qing Dynasty and belong to the exclusive weapons of the Bagua school. The basic skills at circles are brandishing, smashing, noosing, dragging, latticing and pressing. The main practice of circles includes, firstly, Shaolin Jingang circling, which has 16 moves, with the main actions of the sleeping dragon circling the column, the fierce tiger emerging from the mountain, the boy worshipping Buddha, etc. and with the main skills of striking, bumping, hanging and smashing; secondly, Jingang circling, which has 47 moves, with the main actions of taking the enemy’s knee by the left hand and capturing him with the circle with the right hand, turning left, stepping the right foot and hitting with the circle with the right hand, stepping the right foot and back smashing with the circle, etc.; thirdly, Yinyang Qiankun circling, which has 21 moves, with the main actions of the old monk hitting the golden bell, left and right Danfeng Chaoyang, fishing for the moon from the bottom of the sea, etc.; and fourthly, Yuanyang circling, which has 21 moves, with the main actions of showing the circles at a slanting gate, circling the root of a withered tree, mandarin ducks emerging from the water, etc. and with the main skills of pushing, chopping, closing, cutting, entangling and seizing.

近代武术器械中的圈,无齿无刃,直径约25厘米,系有彩绸。演练时,双手各持一圈,配以旋转、翻身、跳跃,并伴有优美的动作造型,适合于青少年和女子练习。中华人民共和国成立后,全国武术比赛中所用的圈,单练套路有“双环”、“乾坤圈”、“风火轮”、“月牙圈”等;对练套路有“双圈对棍”等。

Circles as modern martial arts weapons don’t have teeth and blades and have a diameter of 25 cm and a strip of color silk on them. In practice and performance, each hand holds a circle while turning, turning over and jumping with graceful postures. They are fit for youngsters and women to practice. After the founding of the People’ Republic of China, circles used in national martial arts competitions include “double circles”, “Qiankun circles”, “pinwheels”, “crescent circles”, etc. in practice and “double circles against cudgel” in confrontations.

 

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