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武术器械:铲

http://www.chinesecio.com 2010年08月26日 09:27 网络孔子学院

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古兵器,武术 器械之一。薄体阔刃的长兵。铲头似弯月,月牙朝上,装以长柄,刃与柄呈丁字形。早在新石器时代已有石铲。青铜铲出自商代。战国晚期开始使用铁铲。一般刃部成凸弧形,均以装柄。明代出现了月牙铲。铲最早是农具中“镫锄草具”(见《农政全书》),以后改进成武器。明《武备志》载有铲,并绘之以图,铲刃由凸形演变成凹形,“铲似弯月,月牙朝上,铲柄长小尺一丈,尾有刃,以便后刺。

 
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Ancient and martial arts weapons. Long weapons with a thin body and wide blades. The shovel heads are like crescents and the ends of the crescents are upward. They are equipped with long handles and the blades and the handles form a T-shape. There were stone shovels early in the Neolithic Age. Bronze shovels appeared in the Shang Dynasty. Iron shovels began to be used in the late Warring States Period. Blades are generally in the protruding oblong shape and mounted on handles. Crescent shovels appeared in the Ming Dynasty. Shovels appeared first as grass-removing tools in agriculture (please see the Complete Agricultural Book) and later they were developed into weapons. The Record of Weapons in the Ming Dynasty describes shovels and their pictures. Their blades developed from the protruding form to the concaving form. The “shovel is like a crescent and its ends are upward. The handle of the shovel is more than three meters long with a blade at the end for stabbing backwards.

在民间或僧侣中多用铲,因为铲平时可代替扁担负重,走山路时又便于开路或作为武器,后发展为武术器械。铲的击法有:推、压、拍、支、滚、铲、截、挑等。基本单势动作有“童子拜佛”、“乌龙摆尾”、“二郎担山”、“出山门”等招势。演练时多走身法,风格别致。其代表性套路有:月牙铲、方便铲。对练套路有:月牙铲对枪等。

Shovels were often used by civilians and monks because they could be used as shoulder poles in ordinary times and for opening the way or as weapons when walking mountain paths. Later they were developed into martial arts weapons. The ways of using shovels are pushing, pressing, squashing, propping, rolling, shoveling, cutting and raising and the basic single actions are “the boy worshiping Buddha”, “Wulong swaying the tail”, “Er Lang shouldering the mountain”, “walking out of the mountainous gate”, etc. Body measures are practiced often in exercise with unique styles. Its representative skills are crescent shoveling and convenient shoveling and the confrontation items include crescent shoveling against spears, etc.

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