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常见兵器:弓箭

http://www.chinesecio.com 2010年07月23日 09:01 网络孔子学院

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弓箭是古代以弓发射的具有锋刃的一种远射兵器。弓由弹性的弓臂和有韧性的弓弦构成;箭包括箭头、箭杆和箭羽。箭头为铜或铁制,杆为竹或木质,羽为雕或鹰的羽毛。是中国古代军队使用的重要武器之一。

 
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Ancient called arrow for“shi”, arrowhead for“cu” or “di”. All bows and crossbows adopted shi as their main conponent. It can be said that “shi” was contemporary with bow.

古代弓是牛角弓,牛角弓是中国古代弓箭的巅峰之作,到目前为止也不亚于现代材料制作的弓。牛角弓由牛角,竹木胎,牛筋,动物胶等材料经过百十道工序加工而成,技术难度高,制作周期长,却不能长期保存,最长也就能保存百十年。弓箭作为古代战上的重要武器,最终被枪炮所淘汰,传统弓箭文化从此成为历史,现如今会制作传统弓箭的人寥寥无几,可能就只有北京聚元号和曲阜徐弓坊的几位师傅会做了。

The first shi was very simple, cut a stick or a bamboo rodo into an arrow shaft with certain length and sharpened one end of it . However, the real origin of shi should be in the primitive stone age, at that time people grinded the stone, bone or shell into sharp shape and installed them in one side of the shaft, becoming the dart with stone, bone or shell arrowheads attached to the front, which made a great perogress than just grinded a single stick into sharp shape. In order to hit the target accurately, people must master the direction of arrows in flight, so people installed feathers at the end of the arrow shaft, making the shape of arrows became more and more perfect.

复合弓 复合弓由三部分组成, 木, 角及腱。 未上弦线的复合弓向外弯曲, 弓背(面向目标的一面)为木制。 弓背亦包括三部分: 一对弓臂及一个弓弝。 木制部分大多采用槭树(枫树)、山茱萸或桑树, 或同时采用多种木材。弓面(面向射手的一面)为角制, 角被来加强弓臂部分。游牧民族会选用水牛角, 或野山羊角。 因为水牛的角相对于其他动物的角比较有弹性, 而且较长, 所以两者以水牛角最受游牧民族欢迎。游牧民族会用鱼胶将动物的腿後腱(来自牛、鹿等)黏在木制的弓背部分。 原因是腱像橡皮圈, 经拉扯後能够迅速地回到本来位置, 大大加快箭的飞行速度。一对木制弓臂的末端装有弓弰。 大部分史家认为这是匈奴人的发明。 弓弰增强弓弦的蓄势及减低需要拉弦的力, 使经复合弓发射的箭有更强的杀伤力。

Have been unearthed in the ruins of Shang dynasty, the arrows with brzonze arrpwhead attached to the front had the total length of 85 cm and had a leather quiver. As the bullets in the war, arrows were never returm once used and were also consumed in large quanities. So the arrows with bronze arrowhead could not be largly used and the arrows with stone and bone arrowhead were used mainly.Ancients were fastidious about the size, shape, proportion and material selection of each part of the arrows, even they just consisted of three parts including arrowhead, shaft and arrow feather. For the arrowheads alone, there were four kinds of copper arrowheads unearthed in yin ruins(Shang dynasty): the thin dagger-type was simlar with the point of the dagger. There were ridges in the arrowhead and sub-leaves in both sides. Blades were in the outer edge of the arrowhead and the edged forward into front to the point and backward to the back to form a barb. The ridge extend down to form a collar to connect the shaft. Tri-style arrowhead had the shape of elongaed bar and had three blade edges. There were sharp points in the front and collars in the bottom of the arrowhead. Concial arrowheads were short and light. Similar with cones, they were sharp in the head and round in the end. Looked like column, cabover type arrowheads were flat and had no sharp point. Been used only to hit, concial arrowheads were the best choice specifically for practice. It was proved in the practice that the tri-type arrowhead was most suitable. Its advantages were as follows: simple production, strong arrowhead, sharp-pointed front and strong penetrating power. So, at the end of warring state period, tri-type arrowhead replaced all arrowheads because of its advantages. Tens of thousands of copper arrowheads were unearthed in shanxi qin terracotta pit, 99.85% of which were tri-type. It shew that the types of arrowheads had changged from various to only one type.

箭 飘泊于大草原的游牧民族所制造的箭, 大部分箭镞有针, 有别于在欧洲流行有套的箭镞。 解释众说纷云, 有史家指出这是为了自卫。 假如箭镞只是被插入箭杆, 会减低箭杆吸收冲击力的能力, 箭杆很容易折断, 因此骑弓手能够防止对手使用自己的箭反击。 不过, 适合制作箭杆的材料在大草原很缺乏, 游牧民族不大可能为了自卫而大量浪费箭。比较合理的解释是这种箭镞的制造方法不但简单, 而且所需时间较短, 对人力物力不多的游牧民族很有好处。箭杆通常用芦苇秆或竹来制造, 白桦木及山茱萸木亦是制造箭杆的材料。 箭羽会用水鸟的羽毛来制造, 例如鹅及鸭的羽毛都是上佳的材料。 箭杆有二至四片箭羽, 令箭飞行时更稳定。

Arrow shaft, which was called dry stalk (tinggan) in ancient time, was moade of bamboo or wood. In ancient time people called the shaft made by bamboo arrow, and called the shaft made by wood dart(shi). According to the distribution of the plant resources in ancient times, people in southeast mainly made shaft by wood and people in northeast and northwest mainly made shaft by birch, poplar and willow. People in northern China mainly used huan liu(a kind of willow). Additionally, the feather of the arrow closly related to the speed and hit rate of the arrow. Ancients had strict rules about choosing the feather and the number of the feather need to be used. It would slow the speed of the arroe and shorten the gunshot if there were so much feather, the shaft would lose balance which wouldaffect the accuracy rate., if the feature was not enough. So there must be an approprite proportion of the feature. The book kaogongji(an records about handicraft) discussed an detection method: through the shaft into the water and caculated the proportion of the tail feature need to be installed according to the length that under the water. The best feature for arrows was the plumes of zhou(a bird ), then were the plumes of the eagle and the owl. The worst is the goose plumes for they would not keep balance in the wind. People in Song dynasty invented wind fature arrow, namely, ticked empty on either side at the place of installing the plumes, keeping the balance in flight by the airflows flowing into the fillister. This idea is very scientific. And there were also the paper feather arrows made by cardboard and short arrows without feather. The long arrows used in the big crossbow were iron feather arrows made by iron.

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