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常见兵器:棍

http://www.chinesecio.com 2010年07月08日 09:02 网络孔子学院

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棍 古代兵器,武术 器械 之一。又称“殳”、“棒”、“杵”、“轮”等。棍是人类最早使用的防卫器具,列为五兵之一。棍体呈把粗梢细的渐细形状。棍的各部位包括:棍梢、棍把、棍身。棍身又分为梢段、中段、把段。棍的长度以棍的练习形式不同而异。一般“长棍”(亦称单头棍)长约2.6米;“齐眉棍”之长度与练习者直立时从地面至齐眉;“条子”长约练习者直立时从地面至眉额间的高度,较其他棍稍细。现代武术运动竞赛中所用的棍,最短的必须等于练习者身高,棍中线以下任何部分的直径不得少于:成年组男子为2.29厘米,成年组女子为2.13厘米;少年组男子14岁以上为2.13厘米,以下为2.03厘米;少年组女子14岁以上为2.03厘米,以下为1.9厘米;儿童不受限制。

 
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The Chinese word Gun (Chinese: 棍; pinyin: gùn) refers to a long Chinese staff weapon used in Chinese martial arts. It is known as one of the four major weapons, along with the Qiang (spear), Dao (sabre), and the Jian (sword), called in this group "The Grandfather of all Weapons".

棍的种类很多,有8尺大棍、齐眉棍、三节棍、梢子棍等等。大棍长8尺有余,舞动时需要有很大臂力和腰腿劲;齐眉棍,高与眉齐,舞动时,可大蹦大跳,抡、劈、扫、舞,灵活多变;三节棍,是3节短木棍,中间有铁环相连结,携带方便,舞动时可长可短,可伸可缩,棍法灵活多变;大梢子棍是一种较为短小的棍,有单手梢子棍和双手梢子棍两种。以上各种棍形虽不相同,但演练中其主要方法 仍离不开抡、劈、扫、挂、戳、击、崩、点、云、拨、格、绞、挑等。其运动特点 是:勇猛泼辣,横打一遍,密集如雨,气势恢宏。近代棍法,以健身为主,在技击、体育、表演、艺术等各方面皆有独到之处。棍术的基本技法概括为以下四点:①棍打一遍;②梢把兼用;③握法灵便;④长短兼施。因此,通过棍术的练习,不仅可以提高练习者手、眼、身法、步的协调配合,提高力量、速度、耐力等身体素质,而且还可培养勇敢顽强的精神。

There are various kinds of gun (pronounced goon), and they include the following: Monkey Staff (Chinese: 猴棍; pinyin: hóugùn) 、Biangan (Chinese: 鞭杆; pinyin: biāngān) 、Mad Demon Staff ( Chinese: 疯魔棍; pinyin: fēngmó gùn) 、Tianqi Staff (Chinese: 天齐棍; pinyin: tiānqí gùn) 、Staff of Five Tigers and Goat Herds (Chinese: 五虎群羊棍; pinyin: wǔ hǔ qún yáng gùn) 、Nunchaku (Chinese: 二节棍; pinyin: èrjié gùn; literally "two section staff") 、Taiji Staff of Thirteen (Chinese: 太极十三秆; pinyin: tàijí shísān gǎn) 、Taiji Quarterstaff (Chinese: 太极大秆; pinyin: tàijí dà gǎn) 、Taiji Staff (Chinese: 太极棍; pinyin: tàijí gùn) 、Staff of Eight Fairies (Chinese: 八仙棍; pinyin: bāxiān gùn) 、Bagua Seven Star Rod (Chinese: 八卦七星竿; pinyin: bāguà qīxīng gān) 、 Flail (Chinese: 梿枷; pinyin: liánjiā) 、The types of gun normally used nowadays for exercises and competitions are the bailangan (Chinese: 白栏杆; pinyin: bái lángān) and the nangun (Chinese: 南棍; pinyin: nángùn).

棍术运动的演练形式有单人练习、两人或三人对练、集体练习等。棍术套路很多。在明代就流传有赵太祖腾蛇棒、紫薇山棍、张家棍、青田棍,贺屠钩竿、山西牛家棒、俞大猷棍等。另外在各拳种中还流传有“五虎群羊棍”、“少林棍”、“白眉棍”、“疯魔棍”、“天启棍”等棍术套路。1958年国家体委组织编写并出版了甲、乙组和初级棍术套路,对于武术的普及与提高起到了积极作用。在现代武术竞赛中,棍术被列为武术竞赛项目长器械之一。尤其是第11届亚运会以后的国际比赛中,创编的棍术竞赛规定套路,为武术在世界范围内的推广起到了积极作用。Traditionally, the gun is made out of a material called wax wood, rather than bamboo as many people might think. Wax wood is strong, yet flexible, making it ideal as a material for the gun. The gun is fashioned with one thick end as the base and a thinner end near the tip, and is cut to be about the same height as the user. Today, more modern versions may be purchased made with metal and rubber parts.

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