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常见兵器:弩

http://www.chinesecio.com 2010年06月30日 09:05 网络孔子学院

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古兵器之一,机械发射的弓。据说,战国时期楚琴氏发明弩机,“横弓着臂,施机设枢,加之以力,可以及远”。宋代很注重发展弩,《宋史?兵志》有多处记载弩的制造和改进,时有踏张弩和床弩两种。踏张弩有黑漆弩、黄桦弩、白桦弩、雌华梢弩、跳蹬弩、木弩等。所用的箭有点钢、木羽、凤羽、朴头、三停等名称,比一般的箭坚牢。如木羽箭,杆和羽都是木制的,射中人身,牢不可拔,“去杆而镞留”。宋神宗熙宁元年(1068),李宏发明一种踏张弩,名叫神臂弓。《宋史》记载其形制性能说:“身长三尺三寸,弦长一尺五寸,箭木羽长数寸,射三百四十余步,入榆木半。”

 
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A kind of ancient weapons and mechanically shooting bows. The legend has it that Chu Qin invented crossbows in the Warring States Period. “Putting the crossbow horizontally under one arm, mounting an arrow on it and shooting the arrow far with strength.” Development of crossbows was much emphasized in the Song Dynasty and there are many records about manufacture and improvement of crossbows in the History of the Song Dynasty: Military Records. There were Tazhang crossbows and Chuang crossbows at that time. The former includes black paint crossbows, yellow birch crossbows, white birch crossbows, Cihuashao crossbows, Tiaodeng crossbows, wooden crossbows, etc. Arrows used are called point steel, wood feather, phoenix feather, Putou and Santing and are firmer than ordinary arrows. For example, both rods and feature of wood feature arrows are made of wood and the arrows cannot be pulled out after being shot into the body. “The arrowhead will be left in the body even after the rod is removed.” In the first year of Song Emperor Xi Ning (1068), Li Hong invented a kind of Tazhang cudgels called holy arm bows. According to the record in the History of the Song Dynasty, “They are 1.1 m long and the bowstring is 0.5 m long, with arrow wood feature dozens of cm long. They can be shot more than 340 steps away and half into an elm.”

由于它具有射程远、侵彻力大体轻等优点,所以从北宋一直流传到明代。北宋时床弩盛行,《武经总要》载有双弓的床弩、大合蝉弩、小合蝉弩、子弩和三弓的手射弩、三弓弩、次三弓弩,三弓子弩等多种。双弓弩是前后各一弓,用绳轴绞张,张时须7人,射程达150步;三弓弩是前两弓后一弩,大的须70人张,射程300步,次等的须20~30人张,射程250步。另据《文献通考》记载:“太祖尝令试床弩于近郊,矢及七百步,又令别造千步弩,试之,矢及三里。”《宋史?魏丕传》说:“旧床子弩射止七百步,令丕增造至千步。”可见宋代还有比《武经总要》所列更大的床弩。Due to their long range, high penetrating power and light weight, they were handed down to the Ming Dynasty from the Song Dynasty. Chuang crossbows were popular in the North Song Dynasty. The Summary of Martial Arts records many crossbows, such as Chuang crossbows, big Hechan crossbows, small Hechan crossbows and sub-crossbows, which have double bows, and hand-shot crossbows, three-bow crossbows, small three-bow crossbows and sub-three bow crossbows, which have three bows. Double-bow crossbows contain a bow in the front and a bow in the back and are twisted tight with ropes and stretched by seven people to shoot arrows 150 steps away. Three-bow crossbows have two bows in the front and one bow in the back and stretched by 70 people for the big ones to shoot arrows over 300 steps away and by 20-30 people for the small ones to shoot arrows 250 steps away. According to the record in the General Study of Literature: “The emperor ordered a test of the Chuang crossbow in the suburb and the arrow was shot from 700 steps away. Then he ordered to makeing of a crossbows which could shoot arrows 1000 steps away and the test result was three li.” The History of the Song Dynasty: Biography of Wei Pei says: “The old Chuang crossbow shot arrows 700 steps away and Wei Pei was ordered to make one which could shoot 1000 steps away.” It can be seen that there were bigger Chuang crossbows in the Song Dynasty than those described in the Summary of Martial Arts.

床弩所用的箭有大凿头箭、小凿头箭、一枪三剑箭、踏橛箭等。这些箭特别坚利,如踏橛箭射到城墙上,人可踏着它登城。在双弓和三弓床弩中,都有一种子弩,它是把特制的一个铁子系于弦上,子中可装普通箭数十支,一发可射出几十支箭。所有的弩箭,均可缚上装火药的筒,成为火箭,装火药多少以弩力为准。这类大型弩有它的缺点,《武备志》说:“子床弩等虽强,然费人多,可以守,不可以战(野战)也。”Arrows used with Chuang crossbows include big chisel head arrows, small chisel head arrows, three simultaneous arrows, Tajue arrows, etc. These arrows are especially sharp and firm and people can step on, for example, Tajue arrows to climb a city wall after they are shot into the wall. There is a sub-crossbow in both double bows and three-bow Chuang crossbows. A special iron case is tied to the string and dozens of ordinary arrows can be put into the case to be shot together. Canisters with gunpowder can be tied to all crossbow arrows to make fire arrows and the loaded quantity of gunpowder depends on the power of a crossbow. But such big crossbows have their shortcomings. The Record of Weapons says: “Although sub Chuang crossbows are powerful, they need more people. They can be used in defense but not in field operations.”

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