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螳螂拳

http://www.chinesecio.com 2010年05月11日 08:50 网络孔子学院

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螳螂拳是象形拳 的一种。相传梁武帝时,为山东即墨人王郎受螳螂捕蝉等动作 的启发,在少林 长拳基础 上,吸取螳螂快速、灵活的击前足动作特长,创成此拳。创出的第一套拳名为“崩捕”。螳螂拳是一类长短兼备、刚柔相济、勇猛快速的拳术。 螳螂拳基本手型仿螳螂前爪,类似刁勾,名螳螂爪。主要手法有勾、搂、采、挂、刁、缠、劈、按,崩、扎、滑、截等。主要步型有虚步、四六步、麒麟步等。主要步法有滑步、跟步、踏步、拖步等。基本身型要求顶头、沉肩、垂肘、活腕、拧腰、坐胯、扣膝。身法要求腰部和上肢灵活,臀以下要稳固,即所谓“枝摇根固”、“只动腰、不走胯”。劲法讲究柔缠、刚发,脆快抖弹。一般都是缠圈与抖发结合为用。发劲多通过幌腰抖臂,形於手指。其运动特点取螳螂挡车不畏,勇往直前之意,多短手快打,招势连环。讲究随其势打,寻其隙打,见空就打,出手打,回手也打,以打为守,实劈硬砸。拳法有砸、弹、劈、挑、蹦、勾等。套路 结构严谨,衔接巧妙。发劲刚而不僵,柔而不软,短中寓长,快速敏捷,具有螳螂的形象。螳螂拳派别虽多,但都强调象形取意,重在取意,重意不重形。手法、步法、腿法、身法密连而巧妙,稳健而灵活,活中求快,快中求稳,稳中求精。螳螂拳气势 要求紧快即眼快,手快,步快,身快,式快,一招变三招,长短兼用,气势逼人,变化莫测。发力时,快速突然,松紧结合,富于弹性,做到刚而不僵,柔而不软,脆而不短,快而不毛。器械套路 有螳螂棍、刀、双钩等。

 
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Mantis Boxing is one kind of animal-imitation boxing. It was created by Wang Lang (Jimo, Shandong province) during the period of the Emperor Wu in Liang Dynasty. Wang was enlightened by the actions of the mantis stalking the cicada, absorbed the advantages of the quickness, nimbleness, and the forefoot striking action of the mantis, and created Mantis Boxing on the base of Shaolin Chang Quan. The first kind of boxing he created named “collapse of catching.” Mantis boxing is a class of boxing that contains short and length, hardness and softness, fast and powerful. Basic hand techniques are imitation of the forepaws of the mantis, like a hook, so it was called paw of mantis. Main hand techniques are: hooking, hugging, plucking, hanging, wrapping, splitting, pressing, rolling, sliding, cutting, etc. Main step stances include empty step, four to six stances, Kylin step, etc. Main body techniques are sliding step, heel step, mark time, dragging step and so on. The basic body type demands include lowing the shoulders and elbows, activating the wrist, twisting the waist, sitting the hips and buckling the knees. Body techniques require a flexible waist and upper limbs, solid buttocks and the following, which is called “the root is solid while the branched are shaking”,“just move the waist and do not move the hips.” Strength techniques emphasize on soft wrapping, strong hair, and brittleness, quickness, shaking and flipping. Generally, wrapping circle and shaking hair are used together. The strength is usually got by shaking the waist and the arms, and reached to the fingers. The characteristics of the action takes the meaning that the mantis is not frightened to kick against the pricks, but move forward courageously, there are lots of short-hand fighting and chain actions. Mantis Boxing emphasizes on fighting according to its movement, looking for the weakness of the opponent and hit his weak point, fighting in order to defend, hitting and smashing hardly and firmly. Boxing techniques include: smashing, flipping, chopping, picking, jumping, and hooking, etc. Routines are well-structured, and handily linked. Strength is strong but not stiff, soft but not weak, and combines long boxing with short boxing. It is fast and agile, with the image of the mantis. Although there are numerous schools of Mantis Boxing, they all emphasize on getting the meaning from the animal-imitation, the importance of getting the meaning, and paying more attention to the meaning rather than the image. Techniques of hand, footwork, leg as well as body are firmly connected and handily linked, robust and flexible, perusing quickness on the bases of activeness, steadiness on the bases of quickness and refinement on the bases of steadiness. Mantis Boxing momentum requires quickness and agility, which means that the eyes, the hands, the steps, the body as well as the types should be agile and quick, one stroke can be changed into three, use Chuang Quan and Duan Quan altogether at the same time. The momentum is impressive and unpredictable. The force generation requires quickness, combines softness with tightness, strong but not stiff, soft but not weak, agile but not short, and fast but not hurry. Instruments routines include mantis sticks, swords, double hooks and so on.

螳螂拳分北派螳螂与南派螳螂。北派螳螂拳传于山东省胶东一带,南派螳螂又名周家螳螂拳,据传是清代广东人周亚南创始的,与南拳各派相似。 螳螂拳形成了六合螳螂拳(又名马猴螳螂拳)、七星螳螂拳(又名罗汉螳螂拳)、梅花螳螂拳(又名太极螳螂拳)、通臂螳螂拳、摔手螳螂拳、光板螳螂拳、八步螳螂拳等流派。按发劲的形式划分,七星螳螂拳、梅花螳螂拳等属硬螳螂拳,六合螳螂拳等属软螳螂拳。
There are two schools of Mantis Boxing namely Northern Mantis Boxing and Southern Mantis Boxing. Northern Mantis Boxing was generated from Jiaodong area in Shandong province, while Southern Mantis Boxing, also known as Zhou Mantis Boxing was created by a Cantonese named Zhou Ya’nan in the Qing Dynasty and is similar to schools of Southern Boxing. Mantis Boxing formed Six Conformities Mantis Boxing (also known as Monkey Ma Mantis Boxing), Seven Stars Mantis Boxing (also known as Arhats Mantis Boxing), Plum Flower Mantis Boxing (also known as Taiji Mantis Boxing), and Arm Mantis Boxing, Wrestling Hand Mantis Boxing, Guangban Mantis Boxing, Eight Steps Mantis Boxing and other genres. According to the forms of force-generation, Seven Stars Mantis Boxing as well as Plum Flower Mantis Boxing belongs to Hard Mantis Boxing while Six Conformities Mantis Boxing, etc. belongs to Soft Mantis Boxing.

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