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常见兵器:盾

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盾

盾 古代防护性兵器。又称干、橹、牌、旁牌。形状多样,有长方形、椭圆形、圆形及不规则形。制盾材料有皮革、木材、藤条、金属等。用以掩蔽身体,抵御兵刃矢石的杀伤。盾有手持盾和立盾之分。手持盾较小,只防护身体的一部分,使用方法一般是右手持械,左手握盾或左臂挽盾,多为步、骑兵使用;立盾较大,能支立于地,防护全身,或排成一排,形成屏蔽,在其掩护之下,士兵可双手持兵械格斗。

 
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Ancient protective weapons. They are also called bars, sculls, plates and side plates. They are in different shapes, such as rectangle, oblong, round and irregular shapes. They are made of leather, wood, cane or metal and used to protect the body and resist the attack of arms, arrows and stones. Shields are divided into hand-held ones and erect ones. Hand-held ones are small and can only protect part of the body; they are generally held in the left hand or by the left arm with offensive weapons in the right hand and are mostly used by infantry and cavalry. Erect shields are larger and can be erected on the ground to protect the whole body or lined in a line to form a screen, under protection of which soldiers can hold arms in both hands to fight.

北宋时期将立盾称为立牌。由于盾的大小、形制、使用方法有所区别,不同时期,出现了多种盾名,像步兵用的称步盾,骑兵用的称旁排,兵车上用的称子盾;元代蒙古兵用的称团牌、铁团牌。明代还有手牌、燕尾牌、挨牌、藤牌等称法。戚继光在《纪效新书》中还记载了盾牌和刀相配进行练习的动作招势,有“开扎衣势、斜行势、仙人指路势、滚牌势、跃步势、低平势、金鸡畔头势、埋伏势”等。现代武术运动中,盾作为一种武术器械常与刀配合用于对练项目中,如盾牌刀进枪、三节棍进盾牌刀等。
Erect shields were called erect plates in the North Song Dynasty. Due to different sizes, forms and ways of use, shields were called differently in different periods. For example, shields used by infantry were called infantry shields, shields used by cavalry were called side plates and shields used on chariots were called sub-shields. Those used by Mongolian soldiers in the Yuan Dynasty were called round plates or iron round plates. They were also called hand plates, swallow-tail plates, close plates and cane plates in the Ming Dynasty. Qi Jiguang also recorded the actions and moves practiced together with shields and swords, i.e. “Kaizhayi, going in a slanting way, immortal pointing the way, rolling the plate, striding, low and flat attitude, golden-cock raising head, hiding, etc. In modern martial arts, shields, as a kind of weapons, are often used together with swords in confrontation items, such as shields and swords against spears, three-section cudgels against shields and swords, etc.

关键词学习 Keywords Study

掩蔽yǎn bì
Masking
遮蔽。指遮蔽之物或地方。蒙蔽;隐瞒。引申为袒护。盖过,超过。
Shelter. Refers to things or local shelter. Deceived; hide. Extension for the shield. Overshadowed over.

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身体:shēn tǐ 
Body
指人或动物的整个生理组织,有时特指躯干和四肢。
Refers to the physical system of person or animal, and sometimes stands for trunk and arms and legs.

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抵御:dǐ yù
Resist
抵挡;抗御
Fend against, resist.

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伤害:shāng hài  
Hurt
使受到损害                                   
Suffer damage.

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格斗:gé dòu
Wrestle
紧张激烈地搏斗。
Strongly fight.

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